Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a red and bloodshot appearance in the white and lower rim of the eye. When caused by infection, it can spread easily.
Types of Pink Eye
Pink eye can be caused by infection, either viral or bacterial, or by noninfectious sources, such as allergens or irritants. Infectious pink eye is spread when someone touches his or her own eye after direct contact with an infected eye, its secretions or a contaminated surface.
A viral infection often causes short-lived pink eye and may present itself with other cold-like symptoms. Frequently, both eyes are involved. The eyes will appear bloodshot, and there may be a small amount of thin drainage. There may be a burning sensation. If the pink eye disappears within a day, there is no need to visit a doctor.
Bacterial pink eye infections tend to last longer and cause worse irritation. The eye may appear red and puffy and often is very itchy. The drainage is often thick and pus-like. One or both eyes may be involved. If you notice these symptoms, you are encouraged to take your child to the doctor.
An eye may also become inflamed or start to drain during an allergic response or when irritated by a chemical or foreign body. Babies often have blocked tear ducts that result in discharge on their eyelids. Consult with your doctor to help distinguish the cause.
Treating Pink Eye
Bacterial pink eye is treated with antibiotics, usually applied as drops or ointments. Viral pink eye may resolve on its own, although lubricating drops may provide some comfort. Allergic conjunctivitis often improves with antihistamines or other allergy medications, which may also be given topically.
When administering drops, parents should avoid touching the infected eye and wash their hands immediately afterwards. They should ensure that the dropper does not touch the eye, transferring the bacteria and potentially spreading the infection.
Preventing Pink Eye
Because pink eye is often spread when an infected eye is touched, the best way to prevent it is to practice good hand hygiene. Here are some hand washing tips.
- Wet hands with water
- Apply soap
- Rub hands vigorously for at least 20 seconds, remembering both sides of the hand, between fingers and under fingernails
- If possible, turn off the sink with your elbow or a towel
- Dry hands
In addition, avoid touching the face and eyes to keep potential bacteria away.
Heather L. Zimmerman, M.D.
Boys Town Pediatrics
Pink eye is kind of a layman's term. The medical term is actually conjunctivitis which refers to redness or bloodshot appearance to the white of the eyeball and then the lining of the lower eyelid.
In the general pediatrics world, we think of two different kinds of infection that can cause pink eye. There is viral infection and bacterial infection.
Sometimes with a viral illness there will be one day where a child's eyes look a little bloodshot but there isn't really a lot of drainage, they aren't bothering them much, and then they look normal the next day.
If that comes with some cold symptoms, that's probably just part of the cold virus running its course and doesn't require any special treatment.
Now, if the eye is having quite a bit of drainage, kind of mucus, thick, yellow, green and discolored, or if the eyes are really bothering the little one. They are rubbing them a lot or the skin around the eye is getting red or puffy, that's when it sounds more consistent with a bacterial infection and we should probably take a look.
Pink eye is considered highly contagious. The common way its spread is by hand-to-hand contact. That's why daycares and schools like you to see your doctor if they're worried your child has pink eye.
We almost always end up prescribing an antibiotic drop for pink eye because we know 70% of the infectious cases are bacterial. We use drops to clear that up.
If you're not real careful when putting the drops in, sometimes parents will end up with it on their fingers or the drop bottle will become contaminated and end up with pink eye in the other side as well.
Hand-washing is the number one way to prevent pink eye. The first thing, with children who have pink eye, as they touch their own face we tell them to try not to touch their face and if you do, you need to wash your hands right away.
That will prevent spreading to the other eye, if it's only one eye to begin with. That will also prevent spread to other people in the same process.