Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a mystery that plagues both researchers and parents alike. Though it is a frightening concept, parents can give themselves some peace of mind by knowing the risk factors and methods for potentially preventing SIDS.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Charles Sprague, M.D.
Boys Town Pediatrics
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome has got to be every new parent's biggest fear. So it is truly, an unknown cause. The kids for reasons we do not fully understand just quit breathing, they just fade off to sleep. It is not an aspiration event, it is not choking that would be a known cause of death.
What age is my baby at the most risk for SIDS?
By definition, it is 1 month to 12 months of age. Up to a year of age, but 90% of the deaths from SIDS occur prior to 6 months of age. And your biggest risk is 2 to 4 months by far.
What factors can put my baby at risk for SIDS?
People that have very poor prenatal care and maternal smoking are probably the two biggest things you can control even before the baby is born. Smoking during pregnancy is a huge risk factor for SIDS as is smoking afterwards of course, as well.
What can I do to help prevent SIDS?
Most important by far, is sleeping on the back. When we went to the "Back to Sleep" campaign in the mid-90s, since then the incidence of SIDS has dropped by over 50% with that one intervention. So, just make sure your kid is always on the back.
Next would be the pacifier, it has shown to be very protective. Why? No one knows for sure, but just that little bit of neuro stimulation tends to help lower your incidents and prevent some SIDS deaths.
Sleeping in the same room but in your individual space and both parts to that equation are important. Sleeping in the room is important and helpful, but co-sleeping in the same bed is a big risk factor for SIDS. So, you want them in a basinet or crib within your own bedroom.
Should I buy any of the products claiming to help prevent SIDS?
None of the products that you see on the market, would we recommend to use for the prevention of SIDS. There is absolutely zero evidence to say that they help. Some of them actually probably cause problems and additional risk factors.
What is SIDS?
SIDS is when a seemingly healthy baby dies without explanation. 90 percent of SIDS cases occur in infants less than 6 months of age, with a peak between 2 and 4 months of age. It is the leading cause of death in infants from 1 month to 1 year of age. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, some modifiable and others not.
The condition is not predictable. It can only be diagnosed through autopsy, therefore focusing on reducing risk factors is very important.
Risk Factors of SIDS
There are some risk factors that are thought to trigger SIDS in a genetically susceptible infant. These are modifiable and listed below. Some risk factors are not modifiable such as having a close relative succumb to SIDS. In this situation, parents should inform and discuss this with their pediatrician.
Modifiable risk factors:
- Late-initiated or low-quality prenatal care.
- Mother’s use of tobacco, alcohol or drugs during pregnancy and after the baby is born.
- Sleep conditions – such as sharing a bed, soft bedding, bedding that may cover the baby’s face during sleep or clothing that causes the baby to overheat
Steps to Prevent SIDS:
- Mothers, take good care of yourselves during pregnancy. Avoid alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs. Start taking prenatal vitamins early and use them consistently throughout your pregnancy.
- Avoid exposing the infant to secondhand smoke.
- Put your baby to sleep on his or her back. Some mothers fear their child may develop a
flat head however this is a minor condition in comparison to SIDS.
Tummy time can help combat the flattening of the head and can be started as early as couple weeks old. During tummy time the infant is placed on his or her tummy while awake and alert with an adult supervising the entire time. This is for a few minutes at a time for at least 15 minutes a day. This being said, there are some medical conditions that require an infant to sleep on his or her stomach. Only place an infant on his or her stomach if instructed to do so by your pediatrician.
- Put your baby to sleep alone in the crib or bassinet with a firm mattress and with a tight fitting sheet. Although pretty, no comforters or bumper pads should be used. The baby may be swaddled with a thin receiving blanket or placed in a sleep sack. No blankets should be placed over the infant as these may move over the face as the infant wiggles during sleep. No stuffed animals, pillows or soft bedding. The best place for the crib is in the parents’ room during the first 6 months.
- Dress babies in light sleep clothes and monitor the room’s temperature to avoid overheating. The room should be comfortable for an adult in a short sleeve shirt.
- Pacifiers have been shown to decrease the risk of SIDS. Just falling asleep with a pacifier has been shown to decrease the risk. If the pacifier falls out and the infant is asleep, you do not need to replace it. If your child has never slept with a pacifier, keep it that way.
- If you leave your baby with a caretaker or relative, make sure you explain the baby’s sleep conditions.
Coping with Losing a Child to SIDS:
Despite taking steps to protect babies from SIDS, there are still infants dying of the syndrome daily. It is important to remember that this kind of death is unexplainable and not the fault of the caretaker.
Babies that die of SIDS show no sign of suffering, however those left behind may experience a great deal of pain. If you have lost a child or loved one to SIDS, please speak with a grief counselor.